Along with clams and oysters, mussels are known as “bivalve mollusks.” “Valve” is another name for the hardened calcium carbonate-and protein casing that protects the creatures’ soft innards. These particular mollusks are “bivalves” because they have two such shells, one on the top and one on the bottom.
Freshwater mussels are filter feeders. Water flows into an “incurrent siphon” inside a mussel’s partially opened shell. From that water, the mussel’s gills take in oxygen and filter nutrients, such as microscopic plants and animals. Water and waste are then discharged through an “excurrent siphon.” A single mussel that weighs a quarter of a pound can process up to a half a gallon of water in a day, which makes these creatures remarkable filtration systems.
Unfortunately, freshwater mussels are the most endangered groups of animals in North America. Of the 300 species known to occur in the United States, over 71 percent are endangered, threatened or of special concern. Historically, Illinois was home to 80 species. Today, six species are extinct, 11 have been extirpated from Illinois, and 23 are on federal or state lists of threatened or endangered species. The remaining species are considered stable for now. Eleven species have been found live thus far in DuPage County.
Several factors have contributed to the demise of freshwater mussels, including pollution; harvesting; the loss of certain “host” fish, which mussels need in order to reproduce; the destruction of habitat; the construction of dams; and the arrival of nonnative species, especially the zebra mussel. Forest Preserve District ecologists hope, though, that ongoing efforts, including river-restoration projects, the construction of the Urban Stream Research Center at Blackwell Forest Preserve in Warrenville and continued monitoring, will eventually benefit local populations.
Forest Preserve District ecologists hope that ongoing efforts, such as river-restoration projects and propagation and reintroduction of these species through the Urban Stream Research Center at Blackwell Forest Preserve in Warrenville, will eventually benefit local populations.